The Constituent Assembly adopted the original Indian Constitution in the year 1949. It had a total of 395 articles and 22 parts. Over time, as the demands increased, many other articles and three other parts were added to the Constitution through subsequent amendments. Currently, the Indian constitution has about 450 articles divided into 25 parts.
The post below sheds light on the most important parts of the Indian Constitution that one must know.
The idea behind the Must-Know Articles of the Indian Constitution is not to have them by heart when one opts for competitive exams like UPSC. The main motif is to get them educated enough to have a fair share of the idea about the nature and salient features of the Indian Constitution like Federalism, Separation of Powers, Fundamental Rights, and so on.
- Article 12 –35
Specify the Fundamental Rights available
- Article 36-51
Specify the Directive Principles of state policy
- Article 51A
Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen
- Article 80
Specifies the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha
- Article 81
Specifies the number of seats in the Lok Sabha
- Article 343
Hindi as an official language
- Article 356
Imposition of President’s Rule in states
- Article 370
Special status to Kashmir
- Article 395
Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act,
Other Important Articles of the Indian Constitution
Special notes should be taken for the following articles :
Part 1 – Art. 1 to art. 4
- Article 1- Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and Establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and existing states’ names.
Part 2 – Art. 5 to art. 11
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6- Rights of citizenship of a person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Part 3 – Art.12 to art.35
- Article 12- Definition of the state
- Article 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Originally, the constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now, there are only six rights. One Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by the 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
Some important Fundamental Rights are:
RIGHT TO EQUALITY: ART. 14 TO ART. 18
Article 14- Equality before the law.
Article 15- prohibits discrimination based on religion, race, caste, or sex. Or place of birth.
Article 16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
Article 17- Abolition of the untouchability.
Article 18- Abolition of titles
RIGHT TO FREEDOM: ART. 19 TO ART. 22
Art.19 guarantees all citizens the six rights
· (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
· (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
· (c) Right to form associations or unions.
· (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.
· (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
· (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
Article 20- Protection in respect of conviction for offenses.
Article 21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
Article 21A – Right to education
Article 22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION: ART.23 & ART. 24
Article 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor.
Article 24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines under age 14.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION: ART.25 TO ART. 28
Article 25- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.
Article 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
Article 27- Freedom to pay taxes for the promotion of any particular religion.
Article 28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
- Part 5 – Union ( 52-151)
- Part 6 – States ( 152-237)
- Part 7 – 238 – Repealed
- Part 8 – 239-242 – Union Territories
- Part 9 – 243-243 O – Panchayats
- Part 9A – 243 P-243 ZG – Municipalities
- Part 9B – 243 ZH-243 ZT- Co-operative Societies
- Part 10: Scheduled and Tribal Areas -244
- Part 11: Center- State Relations 245 – 263
- Part 12: Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits (264 – 300A)
- Part 13: Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territories of India (301-307)
- Part 14: Services Under Center and State (308-323)
- Part 15: Elections (324 – 329)
- Part 16: Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities etc. (330 -342)
- Part 17: Official Language (343- 351)
- Part 18: Emergency (352-360)
- Part 19: Miscellaneous (361-367)
- Part 20: Amendment of Constitution (368)
- Part 21: Special, Transitional and Temporary Provisions (369 – 392)
- Part 22: Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals (392 – 395)